Compounding Corner - March

01.05.2018

Veterinary Compounding for Your Pet

By Minkyung Joo

 

What is a Veterinary Compounding Pharmacy?

Veterinary compounding is performed by a licensed veterinarian or a licensed pharmacist on the order of a veterinarian within the scope of their professional practice. Generally, pharmacies are allowed to compound and dispense animal drugs after receiving a prescription for a specific animal patient, whereas non-prescription animal medicines do not require a prescription. Compounding pharmacists work with the veterinarian and the pet’s owner to provide medicines in easy-to-give, flavored dosage forms that animals happily devour. This may be a specialized dosage form for your pet such as a suspension which can help cover a drug's unpleasant taste, chew treat or a transdermal cream. Custom medication compounding allows you to administer the exact dose your pet needs and may help reduce the daily stress of medication time. Whether your pet is a cat, dog, bird or rabbit, compounding pharmacists will support veterinarians with advice on animal medicines and help improve the quality of your pet’s life.

 

Important Differences Between Human and Animal Medications

The effects of human drugs in animals are fairly predictable. Many drugs work through similar mechanisms and exert the same effects in animals as they do in humans. When developing new human drugs, side effects of medications are found from their use in animal subjects during safety and efficacy testing. The side effects and drug interactions that are known to occur in humans can be the same in animals.

There are, however, important differences between humans and animals. These differences include indications for usage, methods of administration, dosages, and courses of treatment. There is also a difference in the metabolic enzymes in the body that activate or inactivate certain drugs between humans and animals. These differences can severely alter drug activity and increase toxicity. This must be taken into consideration before a human drug can be used in an animal. A pharmacist is one of the few professionals who have knowledge on the scientific research conducted in animals for the development of human therapeutic agents. Compounding pharmacists are veterinarians’ best partners for customised animal medications. Below are some examples of drugs to be used carefully in animal patients.

 

Paracetamol (= acetaminophen)

A product containing paracetamol should never be given to cats. The drug interferes with oxygenation in their blood and can result in death if not treated promptly. Paracetamol is also unsafe for dogs and can cause irreversible liver damage, like it can in case of an overdose in humans

 

Antihistamines

Some over-the-counter antihistamines can be useful for treating itching and other allergic reactions in dogs. However, be sure that the product does not contain pseudoephedrine, which can cause hyperactivity and other serious reactions, including death. It is recommended that anyone who is seeking an antihistamine for their dog, to avoid any products that also contain a decongestant.

 

Ibuprofen

This NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) should not be given to dogs or cats as it can result in severe gastric ulcers or acute kidney failure. Drugs including carprofen, deracoxib and meloxicam are NSAIDs approved by the USA FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for use in animals.

 

Minoxidil

While this product is used to promote hair growth in humans, it is not an acceptable treatment for alopecia in pets. It can cause cardiomyopathy in dogs.

 

Thyroid hormone

Thyroid disease is common in both dogs and cats. It is almost uniformly hypothyroidism for dogs and hyperthyroidism for cats. For dogs with thyroid conditions, veterinarians may prescribe the same thyroid supplement that many humans take: thyroxine or levothyroxine. One important difference for these medications when prescribed by a veterinarian is that dogs are prescribed much higher doses than humans. A change in dosage without authorization can result in sub-therapeutic treatment for the animal and additional diagnostic tests and expenses are required to re-stabilize the patient’s hormone level.

 

Xylitol

While the natural, sugar-free sweetener is safe for humans, it can be harmful for dogs. When ingested in even small amounts, it can cause life-threatening hypoglycemia within 15 minutes. Larger ingestions can result in liver failure.

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

[1] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), FDA Regulation of Animal Drugs, Animal & Veterinary. https://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/ResourcesforYou/ucm268128.htm

[2] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Pain Medicine for Pets: Know the Risks. Consumer Health Information. https://www.drugs.com/fda-consumer/pain-medicines-for-pets-know-the-risks-280.html

[3] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Medication Errors Happen to Pets, Too. Consumer Health Information. https://www.drugs.com/fda-consumer/medication-errors-happen-to-pets-too-233.html

[4] U.K. The Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), Veterinary medicines: advice for pharmacists, 21 March 2012, www.vmd.defra.gov.uk  

[5] Gigi Davison, Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources , pharmaceutics, 10 Jan 2017.

[6] Ohio veterinary medical association, Prescription & Veterinary Medicine, www.ohiovma.org

Compounding Corner - March

 

Veterinary Compounding for Your Pet

By Minkyung Joo

 

What is a Veterinary Compounding Pharmacy?

Veterinary compounding is performed by a licensed veterinarian or a licensed pharmacist on the order of a veterinarian within the scope of their professional practice. Generally, pharmacies are allowed to compound and dispense animal drugs after receiving a prescription for a specific animal patient, whereas non-prescription animal medicines do not require a prescription. Compounding pharmacists work with the veterinarian and the pet’s owner to provide medicines in easy-to-give, flavored dosage forms that animals happily devour. This may be a specialized dosage form for your pet such as a suspension which can help cover a drug's unpleasant taste, chew treat or a transdermal cream. Custom medication compounding allows you to administer the exact dose your pet needs and may help reduce the daily stress of medication time. Whether your pet is a cat, dog, bird or rabbit, compounding pharmacists will support veterinarians with advice on animal medicines and help improve the quality of your pet’s life.

 

Important Differences Between Human and Animal Medications

The effects of human drugs in animals are fairly predictable. Many drugs work through similar mechanisms and exert the same effects in animals as they do in humans. When developing new human drugs, side effects of medications are found from their use in animal subjects during safety and efficacy testing. The side effects and drug interactions that are known to occur in humans can be the same in animals.

There are, however, important differences between humans and animals. These differences include indications for usage, methods of administration, dosages, and courses of treatment. There is also a difference in the metabolic enzymes in the body that activate or inactivate certain drugs between humans and animals. These differences can severely alter drug activity and increase toxicity. This must be taken into consideration before a human drug can be used in an animal. A pharmacist is one of the few professionals who have knowledge on the scientific research conducted in animals for the development of human therapeutic agents. Compounding pharmacists are veterinarians’ best partners for customised animal medications. Below are some examples of drugs to be used carefully in animal patients.

 

Paracetamol (= acetaminophen)

A product containing paracetamol should never be given to cats. The drug interferes with oxygenation in their blood and can result in death if not treated promptly. Paracetamol is also unsafe for dogs and can cause irreversible liver damage, like it can in case of an overdose in humans

 

Antihistamines

Some over-the-counter antihistamines can be useful for treating itching and other allergic reactions in dogs. However, be sure that the product does not contain pseudoephedrine, which can cause hyperactivity and other serious reactions, including death. It is recommended that anyone who is seeking an antihistamine for their dog, to avoid any products that also contain a decongestant.

 

Ibuprofen

This NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) should not be given to dogs or cats as it can result in severe gastric ulcers or acute kidney failure. Drugs including carprofen, deracoxib and meloxicam are NSAIDs approved by the USA FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for use in animals.

 

Minoxidil

While this product is used to promote hair growth in humans, it is not an acceptable treatment for alopecia in pets. It can cause cardiomyopathy in dogs.

 

Thyroid hormone

Thyroid disease is common in both dogs and cats. It is almost uniformly hypothyroidism for dogs and hyperthyroidism for cats. For dogs with thyroid conditions, veterinarians may prescribe the same thyroid supplement that many humans take: thyroxine or levothyroxine. One important difference for these medications when prescribed by a veterinarian is that dogs are prescribed much higher doses than humans. A change in dosage without authorization can result in sub-therapeutic treatment for the animal and additional diagnostic tests and expenses are required to re-stabilize the patient’s hormone level.

 

Xylitol

While the natural, sugar-free sweetener is safe for humans, it can be harmful for dogs. When ingested in even small amounts, it can cause life-threatening hypoglycemia within 15 minutes. Larger ingestions can result in liver failure.







 

Reference

[1] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), FDA Regulation of Animal Drugs, Animal & Veterinary. https://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/ResourcesforYou/ucm268128.htm

[2] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Pain Medicine for Pets: Know the Risks. Consumer Health Information. https://www.drugs.com/fda-consumer/pain-medicines-for-pets-know-the-risks-280.html

[3] U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Medication Errors Happen to Pets, Too. Consumer Health Information. https://www.drugs.com/fda-consumer/medication-errors-happen-to-pets-too-233.html

[4] U.K. The Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), Veterinary medicines: advice for pharmacists, 21 March 2012, www.vmd.defra.gov.uk  

[5] Gigi Davison, Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources , pharmaceutics, 10 Jan 2017.

[6] Ohio veterinary medical association, Prescription & Veterinary Medicine, www.ohiovma.org